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The Cambridge equation for demand for cash balances is thus: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Macroeconomics: Theories and Policies.
Macmillan Publishing Company: New York, Now "in the long run" this is probably true. If, after the American Civil War , that American dollar had been stabilized and defined by law at 10 per cent below its present value, it would be safe to assume that n and p would now be just 10 per cent greater than they actually are and that the present values of k , r , and k' would be entirely unaffected.
But this long run is a misleading guide to current affairs. In the long run we are all dead. Economists set themselves too easy, too useless a task if in tempestuous seasons they can only tell us that when the storm is long past the ocean will be flat again.
In actual experience, a change in n is liable to have a reaction both on k and k' and on r. It will be enough to give a few typical instances.
Before the war and indeed since there was a considerable element of what was conventional and arbitrary in the reserve policy of the banks, but especially in the policy of the State Banks towards their gold reserves.
These reserves were kept for show rather than for use, and their amount was not the result of close reasoning.
There was a decided tendency on the part of these banks between and to bottle up gold when it flowed towards them and to part with it reluctantly when the tide was flowing the other way.
Consequently, when gold became relatively abundant they tended to hoard what came their way and to raise the proportion of the reserves, with the result that the increased output of South African gold was absorbed with less effect on the price level than would have been the case if an increase of n had been totally without reaction on the value of r.
Thus in these and other ways the terms of our equation tend in their movements to favor the stability of p , and there is a certain friction which prevents a moderate change in n from exercising its full proportionate effect on p.
On the other hand, a large change in n , which rubs away the initial frictions, and especially a change in n due to causes which set up a general expectation of a further change in the same direction, may produce a more than proportionate effect on p.
Keynes thus accepts the Quantity Theory as accurate over the long-term but not over the short term. Keynes remarks that contrary to contemporaneous thinking, velocity and output were not stable but highly variable and as such, the quantity of money was of little importance in driving prices.
The theory was influentially restated by Milton Friedman in response to the work of John Maynard Keynes and Keynesianism.
A counter-revolution, whether in politics or in science, never restores the initial situation. It always produces a situation that has some similarity to the initial one but is also strongly influenced by the intervening revolution.
That is certainly true of monetarism which has benefited much from Keynes's work. Indeed I may say, as have so many others since there is no way of contradicting it, that if Keynes were alive today he would no doubt be at the forefront of the counter-revolution.
Friedman notes that Keynes shifted the focus away from the quantity of money Fisher's M and Keynes' n and put the focus on price and output.
Friedman writes What matters, said Keynes, is not the quantity of money. What matters is the part of total spending which is independent of current income, what has come to be called autonomous spending and to be identified in practice largely with investment by business and expenditures by government.
The Monetarist counter-position was that contrary to Keynes, velocity was not a passive function of the quantity of money but it can be an independent variable.
Friedman wrote:. Perhaps the simplest way for me to suggest why this was relevant is to recall that an essential element of the Keynesian doctrine was the passivity of velocity.
If money rose, velocity would decline. Empirically, however, it turns out that the movements of velocity tend to reinforce those of money instead of to offset them.
Second, nominal GDP could change even when there is no change in the money supply. Suppose government purchases increase. Such an increase shifts the aggregate demand curve to the right, increasing real GDP and the price level.
That effect would be impossible if velocity were constant. The fact that velocity varies, and varies positively with the interest rate, suggests that an increase in government purchases could boost aggregate demand and nominal GDP.
To finance increased spending, the government borrows money by selling bonds. An increased supply of bonds lowers their price, and that means higher interest rates.
The higher interest rates produce the increase in velocity that must occur if increased government purchases are to boost the price level and real GDP.
Just as we cannot assume that velocity is constant when we look at macroeconomic behavior period to period, neither can we assume that output is at potential.
With both V and Y in the equation of exchange variable, in the short run, the impact of a change in the money supply on the price level depends on the degree to which velocity and real GDP change.
In the short run, it is not reasonable to assume that velocity and output are constants. Using the model in which interest rates and other factors affect the quantity of money demanded seems more fruitful for understanding the impact of monetary policy on economic activity in that period.
However, the empirical evidence on the long-run relationship between changes in money supply and changes in the price level that we presented earlier gives us reason to pause.
It would be a mistake to allow short-term fluctuations in velocity and output to lead policy makers to completely ignore the relationship between money and price level changes in the long run.
What happened to money demand? Why did it change? The Union and the Confederacy financed their respective efforts during the Civil War largely through the issue of paper money.
That huge increase in the money supply boosted the price level in the Confederacy dramatically. It rose from an index of in to 9, in Estimates of real GDP in the South during the Civil War are unavailable, but it could hardly have increased very much.
Although production undoubtedly rose early in the period, the South lost considerable capital and an appalling number of men killed in battle.
Let us suppose that real GDP over the entire period remained constant. For the price level to rise fold with a fold increase in the money supply, there must have been a 4.
People in the South must have reduced their demand for Confederates. An account of an exchange for eggs in from the diary of Mary Chestnut illustrates how eager people in the South were to part with their Confederate money.
If there are expectations of higher inflation, it becomes self-fulfilling — workers demand higher wages to meet rising living costs. Firms put up prices to meet rising costs.
Strict monetarist policies would help reduce expectations. In the early s, the UK and US adopted monetarist policies with mixed results. This rate of increase should depend on institutional factors and be determined independently of policymakers.
Friedman believed this rule would avoid the extremes of deflation Falling money supply, e. Great Depression and inflation due to rising money supply.
It would give business strong expectations of what would happen to money supply and inflation. Monetarist inflation in the AD and AS model Following a rise in the Money Supply, consumers have more money and therefore spend more money on goods; this shifts AD to the right.
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Vorsitzender des Landeskontrollausschusses.The latest tweets from @GdP_MV. It turns out that when MV= PY was first created, V was probably something like #1, but today #2 is the accepted definition. For example, some money is spent on things that are not a part of GDP, such as used goods, or intermediate goods. So could we fix the definition by calling V the “average number of times a dollar is spent on final goods”?. MV = PY M = money supply, V = velocity of money, P = price level, Y = real GDP Assumptions: ŁV is constant ŁMoney has no effect on real variables (so ∆M has no effect on Y) ŁY is entirely determined by the fixed stock of labor, capital and technology Note that each side of the equation equals the Nominal GDP (including the inflation). Equation of Exchange (MV=PQ) / Quantity Theory of Money Equation of exchange and the quantity theory of money: This is the "monetarist school" view of the role of money in the economy. They believe that money directly affects prices, output, real GDP and employment in the economy. GDP, PPP (constant international $) GDP (current LCU) GDP, PPP (current international $) GDP per capita growth (annual %) Download. CSV XML EXCEL. DataBank.